Caibidil a hAon: The Noun (an tAinmfhocal)

Declension of Nouns (Díochlaonadh na nAinmfhocal)


In Irish, the nouns are declined. Similarly to German, the declension is pretty rudimentary, the changes rather small, and only in a few cases are they differentiated.
One subdivides the nouns by their declension inti 5 main groups (declensionen / díochlaontaí).

In the divisions, similarities in the declension in the Celtic and the Latin declensions become apparent. [ 1 ]

The divisions follow the form of the genitive singular. Also for the dative singular (if still in use) there are clear rules.
For the plural, there are certain regularities, which are very variable and were not taken into account when dividing the declensions.
A few of the nouns form irregular genitives, hence, they belong to the irregular declension.

In the dialects, sometimes a few of the nouns will spring over to other declensions (e.g.: shoulder = guala - gualann, 5th decl., also gualainn - gualainne, 2nd decl., father = athair - athar, 5th decl., also athair - athara, 3rd decl.)


1st declension m palatalisation = nominative fear - fir - fear
2nd declension f. palatalisation + -e palatalisation long - loinge - loing
3rd declension m./f. (depalatalisation) + -a = nominative leann - leanna - leann
4th declension m.  = nominative = nominative cailín - cailín - cailín
5th declension f. depalatalisation = nominative athair - athar - athair
(depalatalisation) + -(e)ach (depalatalisation) + -(a)igh beoir - beorach - beoraigh
+ -d, -n/-nn + -id, -in/-inn cara - carad - caraid
irreg. declension m./f. - - bean - mná - mnaoí

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[ 1 ]
comp. lat. longa - longae/ ir. long - loinge: the lat. genitive-suffix -ae of the a-declension corresponds with the Irish -e with palatalisation of the final consonant. lat. vir - viri / ir. fear - fir: the lat. genitive-suffix -i of the o-declension is in Irischen only to be noticed in the palatalisation of the final consonant.