Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)
chun, chuig = to, towards
chun stems from dochum < tochim, an Old Irish verbal noun ("to step towards "), this is why it required the genitive. Prior to the spelling reform: chum
The form chuig is a reversion of the personal form of the 3rd person chuige.
The personal forms once belonged to the preposition with the same meaning go = to (Old Irish. co), the forms came about in relevance to the forms of ag).
In Munster, chun is actually pronounced [xun], in Connacht and Ulster only [un] or [@n].
chun (moreso in Munster and in the standard) requires the genitive,
chuig (in Connacht and Ulster) requires the dative (in the dialect of Clare, chuig also takes the genitive)
Initial Mutations after chuig
- without an article: no lenition or eclipsis e.g. chuig cailín = to a girl
- with the singular-article: eclipsis (except d,t) e.g. chuig an gcailín = to the girl
- in Munster, d,t also eclipses
- in Connacht, t-prefix precedes femin. nouns with s-: chuig an tsúil
- in Ulster, always lenition e.g.: chuig an chailín
Initial Mutations after chun
- without the article: genitive, without lenition e.g.: chun buachalla = to a boy
- with the article: genitive e.g.: chun an bhuachalla = to the boy
(chun an/chun na both in Ulster > 'na, e.g.: dul chun an chnoic > goil 'na chnoic = go to the hill )
- Cé / cad chuige = to whom, why?
Combination of chuig/chun with personal pronouns
In Connacht/Ulster: chuig > [huig] > ag. In place of chuig also ag is used.
By pronominal forms, often those with h (hagam, agam statt chugam etc.) are found
in Munster, the g is mostly(except in the 3rd pers. sg.) lenited: chugham, chughat, chuige, chuichi, chughainn, chughaibh, chuchu
- directional to: e.g.: scríobh chugam = write to me, dul chuig an dochtúir = go to the doctor
also applied: cuir chun báis = to bring s.o. to their death, dul chun olcais = to turn bad, dul chun dearmaid = to be forgotten, chun bealaigh = on the way
- also with town names with an article to: chun na Fraince = to France (instead of chun also do, go dtí is possible)
- cause for, because : rinne muid chuig glóire Dé é = we did it for the Glory of God
- chuige = especially (Adverb)
- proximity on, by chun na gaoithe = close to the wind, chun mo laimhe
= near to my hand
- chugat leat = away with you!
- temporal until, as soon as : chun gur ghlaoigh an coileach
= no sooner did the cock crow
- temporal by time of day before a ceathrú chun a dó = quarter to two (here also: a ceathrú don dó) or almost, nearly tá sé chun a dó = it is almost 2 O'clock.
- with the verbal noun: "in order to " (intention,purpose): chuig/chun an fhírinne a rá = (in order) to tell the truth, chun teanga a fhoghlaim = (in order) to learn a language, after chun here, mostly no genitive (instead of chun, also le)
- with the verbal noun: "ready to " (prepared / suitable for): tá an féar chun bainte = the grass is high enough to be cut; réidh chun ...= ready to,fear chun cainte = a man to talk, lá chun taistil = a day to travel, an aimsir chuige = fitting weather
Gramadach na Gaeilge
© Lars Braesicke 1999 / 2000