Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)
le = with
In le the old prepositions le and re have fallen together. (in Scottish Gaelic they are still seperate)
In Munster mostly lé (with a long e)
le requires the dative.
- without article: no lenition/eclipsis, but the h-prefix precedes a vowel: e.g.:le hAoife = with Aoife
- with article: eclipsis: leis an mbord = with the table
- only in Munster also d,t is eclipsed
- in Connacht t-prefix preceding femin. nouns with s-: leis an tsúil = with the eye
- in Ulster always lenition: leis an bhord
- cé / cad leis = with whom, to whom belongs the..., with what?
combination with article:
- le + an: leis an
- le + na: leis na
combination with personal pronoun and possessive pronoun:
||le mo (lem)
||le do (led)
The 3 "lena" differ according to if lenition ("with his "), eclipsis ("with her " plural), or nothing follows ("with her " singular).
lem, led appear in Munster.
combination with the indirect relative pronoun a and the indirect relative form of the copula:
le + a/ar
le + ar
After a combination with the relative pronoun lena eclipsis follows, after lenar, lenition
These forms are only used if the indirect relative clause begins with a preposition (as in German : die Frau, mit der ich gehe = an bhean lena dtéim) More often, the preposition is at the end (an bhean a dtéim léi)
- accompaniment: with le Máirtín = with Martin
- aid: with, via : le spáid = with the spade , fuair sé bás leis an ocras = he died from the hunger
- purpose/requirement: (with the verbal noun): (in order) to : le balla a phéinteáil = in order to paint the wall, neart le n-ól = to drink a lot, scéal le hinsint = to tell a story
here, the n-prefix precedes a vowel (otherwise no eclipsis)
- adj + le + verbal noun : maith le hithe = good to eat, blasta le hól = tasty to drink, crua le cogaint = hard to chew
- force of motion : with: le gaoth = with the wind, le sruth = with the flow
- point in time : at the start of the ...: leis an lá = by daybreak, leis an mí = at the start of the month
- cause phys./psych. state: leis an tuirse = from exhaustion; le hól = through drinking; le greann = out of fun; le gleo = due to the noise
- behaviour to others : e.g. deas le... = nice to..., fearg (ar...) le... = angry at...
- location: close to : leis an mballa = against the wall, le tine = close to the fire, cuir le = lay upon
- motion: close to....along: éirigh le balla = to climb a wall, tit le haill = to fall off a cliff
- in the direction to, towards : luí le grian = lie in the sun, tabhair do chúl leo = turn your back to/on them, tá súil agam le... = I hope...(to hope for something...)
- for/against: paidir le = pray for, cúis le = cause of, fianaise le = proof of, cuir gadhar le = to sick a dog on someone
- duration: since: le seachtain = since/for a week, le fada = since a while
- subjective assessment: "finden": copula + adjective + le + subject: is maith le = like , ba mhaith le = want, would like , is hionadh le = to wonder , is breá le = love ("to find wonderful "), is fuath le = hate, is fearr le = prefer, is cuma le...(faoi...) = to not care about (something).
e.g.: is fada liom é = I find it to be long, is dóigh liom go ...= I think that...
- practice: is minic liom = I do it often
- property own / have : copula + le + subject: Is le Cáit an teach = the house belongs to Cait ; an teach leis = his house similarly also:
- ownership of body parts: cois leis = a foot of his
- relationship with : cara liom = a friend of mine , iníon leis = a daughter of his
- author: e.g. of books : (by... ) e.g.: "Faust" le Goethe but also: triúr clainne leis = 3 children by him (conceived)
- with directional adverbs : with: anuas leat! = down you go , but also with adverbs of motion: d'imigh sí léi = she left
- can: is féidir le....,or : tig le... + VN
- tá subj. le...(ar...).agree with (on) but tá le subj.: succeed in/with
- comparison: as ... as : chomh + Adj. + le: chomh mór leat = as big as you
similar also (with chomh):
- comparison with: i gcomparáid le = in comparison with, inchurtha le = comparable to, obair le triúr fear= the work of(compared with) three men, fás leat = grow like you
- as well as : tá sé chomh maith ag + S + ... + le + ... tá sé chomh maith agam suí le seasamh = I can sit as well as stand
- as much as : tá sé chomh cóir agat é a dhéanamh liomsa = you have just as much right to do it as I do
- with verbs (reflexive on the subject) to go on : abair leat = keep talking, d'oibrigh mé liom = I kept working
- with certain verbs: fan le = wait for, (eas)aontigh le = (not)agree with, buail le = meet someone, ag cuidiu le = help someone, déir le = to say about
- communication: with: labhair le = speak with but also gáir le = smile at someone, feadáil le = whistle at, éist le = listen to
- is leat + VN = it's your turn to ...
- take/bring: tá ... le: tá sé liom = I'll take/bring it with me
- type of motion : bhí súil géar leis = he had a fast pace
- tendency, trend: tá fána leis = it's falling, tá casadh chun an chladaigh leis = it curves to the coast
- profession/activity (working with): dochtuir le leigheas = M.D., doctor of medicine, obair le miotal = metal work, to work with metal
- to bring with it : tá costas leis = that would bring costs with it, tá trioblóid leis = that brings trouble
- to begin /end with
- maidir le = regarding, with respect to, like
- in aice le = next to (spatial)
- in éineacht le = beside (together with)
- leis adverbial use: also (instead of freisin, fosta) predom. in Munster): Bhí mé ann, leis = I was there too.
Gramadach na Gaeilge
© Lars Braesicke 2000