the adverbs (na dobhriathra)
| word order
locational and directional adverbs
adverbs out of adjectives
adverbs out of nouns
adverbs out of weekdays
adverbs out of numeral words
Interrogative adverbs (when, where, how) see interrogatives
Adverbs in Irish are unchangeable (no declension or conjugation).
Those adverbs derived from adjectives cam however be incremented (the form is the same as the adjective)
The adverb comes mostly:
Notice the common quartering, depending on a state of being (adverbs begin
often with th-), a movement towards
the speaker (s-) or a movement away
from the speaker (an-) is occurring.
By expressing a relative location to anothern thing/person, adverbs can also begin with las-/lais- (laistigh, lastoir, etc). The point of reference is then inserted with de (lastuas den staighre = above the stairs, lastuaidh den tir = north of the country)
Instead, the forms with las- are also common as forms with the noun taobh: taobh thiar de = west of, taobh istigh de = within.
The difference between an- and s- is about the same as the German her- and hin-, but in other composition (anuas = down from above, síos = down below)
A following noun may be included (e.g. anuas an staighre = downstairs).
In this case, the adverbs are used as prepositions.
Additionally, one can use these adverbs as adjectives (an teach thuaidh = the northern house, an Pol Thuaidh = the North Pole).
A possibility of substantiation is prefixing an taobh: e.g. an taobh istigh = the inside, an taobh thuas = the upper, an taobh theas = the southern part
|in the Northwest
|in the North
|in the Northeast
|to the Northwest
siar ó thuaidh
|to the North
|to the Northeast
soir ó thuaidh
|in the West
|to the West
|+||to the East
|in the East
|to the Southwest
siar ó dheas
|to the South
|to the Southeast
soir ó dheas
|in the Southwest
|in the South
|in the Southeast
The terms for West and East are much more often used in Irish than in English
One doesn't just go "down" a street, no - one says the actual direction:
Tá mé ag dul siar an bóthar = I'm going down the road (to the West)
North and South in such sentences is often replaced by "up" (South) and "down" (North).
Tá mé ag dul síos an bóthar = I'm going down the road(to the North)
In Connacht (Cois Fhairrge) ó dheas and ó thuaidh
apply independent of the direction(= from/to/in the South / North).
aduaidh and aneas are used in compound directions, independent of the direction:
e.g.: siar aduaidh = to the Northwese, thoir aneas = in the Southeast
Wind directions are generally termed as aneas, aduaidh : an gaoth aduaidh = northerly wind
Directions like "south-southwest" are formed similarly to those above, but as "southwest-south": theas thiar theas = in the south-southwest, aneas aniar aneas = from the south-southwest.
The noun forms of the directions differ greatly:
tuaisceart = North, deisceart = South,
oirthear = East, iarthar = West
oirdheisceart = Southeast, iardheisceart = Southwest
oirthuaisceart = Northeast, iarthuaisceart = Northwest
suas [ 1 ]
up (thuas) is often said in place of in the South and down (thíos) in place of in the North.
Aside from noun phrases like an taobh thuas = the upside there are a few others: an t-íochtar = the lower, an t-Uachtar = the upper.
"back" and "in the West" are the same (thiar)
(In Ireland one has so to say the West always at your back, so one is always looking east, "ex oriente lux"). Following this logic, "East"(thoir) = "front". Which is correct, but is hardly used this way.
Instead, one uses mostly ar aghaidh, ar tosach and other expressions.
If one follows the aforementioned behind me is the West and in front of me the East, then right of me is South:
and it is so!: rechts = deas (comp.
ó dheas = in the South).
Links = clé doesn't quite fit in this picture, but (links = tuathal is at least in the dictionary, comp. ó thuaidh = in the North)
Deas and clé are adjectives, adverbially only as ar taobh
deas/clé, ar taobh na láimhe deise/clé or ar dheis/clé
(deis and clé as nouns in the sense of right/left hand, instead of
ar, also other prepositions are used to indicate direction)
Clé kann auch einfach so adverbial verwendet werden.
Note the threefold meaning of deas (right, southern, nice)
|out||amach [ 1 ]||outside||amuigh||outside of||lasmuigh|
|anois now||ansin then|
|inniu today||anocht tonight|
|inné yesterday||aréir last evening|
|arú inné day before yesterday||arú aréir the evening before last|
|amáireach tomorrow||anuraidh last year|
|arú amáireach day after tomorrow||arú anuraidh year before last|
forming with the adverbial particle go:
|go + adjective||go maith, go cliste, go sciobtha|
|go + h+adjective (init. vowel)||go hiontach, go hard|
go is omitted mostly:
The adverbial particle go is identical to the preposition
If it is identical to go = to/until or with the today seldomly used go = with, there are conflicting sources; more likely is go = to/until, because no eclipsis follows. Also go mór = lit. approx.: "up to [a] large [degree]"
Adverbial pronouns are formed with the help of prepositions. In German e.g. darin, darauf, hierin, deswegen, etc.
with conjugable prepositions
Many prepositions are conjugated and form prepositional
pronouns. The 3rd person singular masc. of these are used as adverbs.
(exception is idir = between. There one uses the 3rd person plural.)
e.g.: aige = with it(lit.: "by-him"), air = on it(lit.: "on-him"), ann = therein (lit.: "in-him"), eatarthu = between (lit.: "between-them")
Often a demonstrativ pronoun follows, especially
if a stronger meaning is desired:
sin (= that, equiv. to the dt. prefix da-/dar-): air sin = on that, dó sin = to that, de sin = of that, ann sin = in that
seo (= this, equiv. to the dt. prefix hier-): air seo = on this, dó seo = to this, de seo = of this, ann seo = in this
siúd (= that there, equiv. to the dt. prefix there(dar)-): air siúd = on that there, dó siúd = thereto, de siúd = from there, ann siúd = in there
Fairis sin > freisin (lit. "besides
that ") has an extended meaning of also (in Connacht).
In the meaning "also" there is also (in Munster) the word leis (lit.: "with that") and (in Ulster) fosta
A simple ann means "therein" also (more
often) "there". It is used with the verb bí in the
meaning "there is, there exists":
Tá teach ann = there is a house (lit.: "is a house in-it")
An bhfuil Dia ann? = Is there a God? (lit.: "is God in-it?")
Ann sin, ann seo, ann siúd are mostly written ansin,
anseo, ansiúd and have the further meanings:
anseo = here < ann seo = "in-it this"
ansin = there < ann sin = "in-it that" (temporal also: then)
ansiúd = over there < ann siúd = "in-ti there"
The appropriate interrogatives are
formed using cé, cad or cá (overview
dó sin = to that, cé dó = why?
faoi sin = under that, cé faoi = under what?, etc.
with derived prepositions
Combined or derived prepositions connnect
with nouns in the genitiv or with possessive pronouns.
The acquire an adverbial meaning through the connection with the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person masc. (often + sin/seo/siúd)
|ar son||because||ar a shon||because of that||"on its welfare"|
|de bharr||result||dá bharr sin||as a result||"from-its top of that"|
|i lár||central||ina lár sin||centrally||"in-its middle that"|
|i ndiaidh||after||ina dhiaidh sin||afterwards||"in-its after that"|
|le haghaidh||for||lena aghaidh sin||supporting||"with-its face that"|
Remarkable many adverbs are derived from nouns. Often this took place with
the help of the preposition i in the form
of the modern prefixes a-, i-, an-, in-, is-, that due to their origin
as prepositions, are always unstressed (is- = archaic for sa = in
The substantial origin is today hardly recognisable, aside from the constant emphasis on the 2nd syllable (the 1st syllable of the noun part).
Similar constructions are also to be found in German and English (often with the preposition zu, to) (comp. e.g.: engl. today, tomorrow, dt. zutage, zuhause).
Through a change in the (historical) dative to accusative forms (comp. istigh, isteach) word pairs with a shifted meaning occur (drinnen, herein).
inné = yesterdy < i ndé = "in a day"
inniu = today< i ndiu = "in a day"
amuigh = outside< i muigh (i maigh) = "in a field"
amach = out< i mach = "in a field"
istigh = inside< is tigh (sa tigh) = "in the house"
isteach = inside< is teach (sa teach) = "into the house"
amárach = tomorrow< i mbárach = "in a morning"
anuraidh = last year< i n-uraidh = "in last year"
anocht = tonight< i nocht = "in a night"
In adverbs, with the help of other prepositions, one can mostly still recognize the nouns: ar uaireanta = sometimes, etc.
These adverbs are in German and English more used as normal nouns of time periods ("On Monday, I go to school"). The adverbs (Mondays = every Monday = gach Luan etc.) are nouns in Irish.
The adverbs are formed with Dé (archaic for day). They are always written capitalized. (Déardaoin always keeps its Dé)
|Luan||Monday||Dé Luain||(on) Monday||lat. "dies lunae = day of the moon"|
|Máirt||Tuesday||Dé Máirt||(on) Tuesday||lat. "dies martis = day of Mars"|
|Céadaoin||Wednesday||Dé Céadaoin||(on) Wednesday||alt-ir. "first fasting"|
|Déardaoin||Thursday||Déardaoin||(on) Thursday||alt-ir. "day between the fastings"|
|Aoine||Friday||Dé hAoine||(on) Friday||alt-ir. "fasting" (lat. "dies jejunii")|
|Satharn||Saturday||Dé Sathairn||(on) Saturday||lat. "dies saturni = day of Saturn"|
|Domhnach||Sunday||Dé Domhnaigh||(on) Sunday||lat. "dies dominica = day of the Lord"|
an Luan = the Monday
Dé Luain = on Monday, this Monday
Dé Luain seo caite = last Monday
Dé Luain seo chugainn = next Monday
gach Luan = every Monday, Mondays
ó Luan go Satharn = von Monday bis Saturday
|1||(aon) uair (amháin)||singil|
|2||dhá uair||faoi dhó||dúbailte|
|3||trí huaire||faoi thrí||tréaga|
|4||ceithre huaire||faoi cheathair||ceathairfhillte|
|5||cúig uaire||faoi chúig||cúigfhillte|
|6||sé huaire||faoi shé||séaga|
|7||seacht n-uaire||faoi sheacht||seachta|
|8||ocht n-uaire||faoi ocht||ochtfhillte|
|9||naoi n-uaire||faoi naoi||naoifhillte|
|10||deich n-uaire||faoi dheich||deichfhillte|
The last column of the table ist only to be used as an adjective. Instead of
tréaga, séaga, seachta also tréfhillte, séfhillte,
Further formations of similar adjectives with-chodach (ochtchodach = eightfold).
[ 1 ]
suas and amach mean extended also: completely, fully
e.g.: Tá mé caite amach = I am completely out. Amach is amach = through and through